Brasilia National Park

The Brasilia National Park is a haven of biodiversity and natural beauty, a protected area right next to Brasilia, the capital of Brazil. This guide accompanies you to discover the secrets and wonders of this park, from its lush ecosystems to its tourist attractions and fascinating history.


Brasilia National park

Location of Brasilia National Park

Located just 10 km from the center of the capital of Brazil, the Brasilia National Park is an extensive protected area, northeast of the center of Brasilia, in the Federal District of Brazil. It occupies an impressive area of ​​30,000 hectares and is part of the set of national parks of Brazil, under the administration of the Chico Mendes Institute for the Conservation of Biodiversity. It is important to note that this park is unique in its kind, as it is the largest in the world located within an urbanized area.

For those interested in its exact coordinates, the park is located at the following locations: 15°42’56″S latitude and 47°58’32″W longitude. This geographical area is home to abundant biodiversity and captivating landscapes, providing visitors with an unparalleled natural experience amidst the proximity of the vibrant city of Brasilia.

Historical and cultural importance

Designated in 1961, this park not only stands out for its biodiversity, but also for its important role in Brazilian history and culture. Also known as “Mineral Water”, it is an oasis of nature that provides a fresh respite from urban life.

History of Brasilia National Park

The park was created with the objective of protecting watersheds and guaranteeing water supply to the Brasilia region. Over the years, it has evolved to become a wildlife refuge and popular tourist destination.

The National Park of Brasilia was created and has a close relationship with the construction of the city of the same name. During the height of the gold cycle, extractions in the region of Pirenópolis, Goiás, passed through the area where the park is located today. A place known as "the account" gave its name to the plateau present in the area.

The creation of the park took place on November 29, 1961, assigning protection to an area of ​​423.83 km2, and was the result of the need to protect the rivers that supplied drinking water to the new Brazilian capital and conserve the vegetation in its area. natural state. At that time, an agreement with the Ministry of Agriculture allowed NOVACAP to maintain a nursery for Brasilia afforestation in a part of the future park.

Since then, the Brasilia National Park has become an urban park with a large influx of visitors throughout the year. Its history is marked by its importance in the protection of natural resources and its link with the development of Brasilia as the capital city of Brazil.

Geography and climate

Geological features

Brasília National Park, located in the central region of Brazil, is home to a variety of geological landscapes, from savannahs and forests to spectacular rock formations and waterfalls. It is a true example of Brazil’s geographical diversity.


Composed of streams that originate at the intersection between the Chapada da Contagem and the Paranoá Depression. These streams are tributaries of the Paranoá River and form a drainage network with an annular pattern in relation to the Paranoá Semidome, according to Novaes Pinto (1986). Locally, these watercourses follow a west-east direction with a slight curvature towards the southeast, heading towards Lake Paranoá.

In areas with steep slopes, where the soils are shallow such as Cambisols, the density of the drainage network is greater due to the low infiltration capacity of these soils. Therefore, more abundant surface runoff occurs, forming gullies. In certain humid areas of the park, it is possible to find small lagoons, which are visible on satellite images.

Among the main sub-basins of the Brasília National Park, the Bananal stream and the Torto stream stand out, the latter being fed by the Santa María stream. The Santa María stream is crucial, as it feeds the dam of the same name and has the largest basin area within the park. Furthermore, in the higher altitude areas, the Córregos Três Barras and Córrego Tortinho stand out, which flow through a large area of ​​the park.

In summary, the Brasília National Park has a network of streams and waterways that play an essential role in the region’s ecosystem and in supplying water to the Paranoá River basin. These bodies of water also contribute to the scenic beauty and natural appeal of the park, offering a unique experience for visitors.


The park’s climate is tropical savannah, with a dry season and a wet season. Summers are warm and humid, while winters are mild and dry, making the park a pleasant year-round destination.

It is characterized by having a predominant "tropical savanna" climate according to the Köppen classification.

The rainy season extends from October to April, concentrating around 84% of the annual rainfall. The rainiest months are November, December and January, with December being the month with the most rain of the year.

The dry season runs from May to September, with June, July and August being the driest months with only 2% of the annual precipitation. The relative humidity of the air decreases as the dry season progresses, reaching very low levels, even around 12% in the hottest months such as August and September.

The climate of the Brasília National Park is classified into three units according to Köppen: Aw, Cwa and Cwb. The Aw unit, with monthly temperatures above 18 °C, is not present in the park due to its altitude. The Cwa unit is characterized by having a colder month with temperatures below 18 °C and a hotter month with average temperatures above 22 °C. This unit is located in most of the park with altitudes below 1200 meters. Finally, the Cwb unit, with temperatures in the coldest month also below 18 °C and in the warmest month below 22 °C, corresponds to the highest areas of the Federal District and covers the northern and western areas. of the Brasilia National Park.

The park’s climate, with its tropical savanna characteristics and variations in precipitation and humidity throughout the year, influences people’s thermal perception and feelings of discomfort, especially during the dry season. However, exposure to winds can mitigate this sensation, providing a balance in the weather experience of park visitors.

Flora and fauna

Notable plant species

The park is home to a great diversity of flora, including endemic species and others that are crucial to the biodiversity of the region. The presence of the Cerrado flora stands out, one of the most threatened and biodiverse biomes in the world. Several species of orchids, bromeliads and other exotic and vibrant plants are found here.

Emblematic animals and birds

The park’s fauna is equally diverse, with numerous species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. Species such as the maned wolf, the pampas deer, and a large number of birds stand out, including some endemic and threatened species.

Threats to biodiversity and conservation measures

The park faces several threats, including deforestation, illegal hunting and climate change. However, various conservation measures are being implemented to protect and preserve its rich biodiversity.

Tourist attractions and recreational activities

Capivara Trail

An exciting tour through the Brasília National Park that offers panoramic views of lush nature and the opportunity to spot various species of wildlife, including the curious capivara, a rodent typical of the region.

Crystal Water Trail

A trail that will take you through picturesque landscapes and crystal clear rivers. Enjoy the freshness of the water while you walk among the native flora and fauna. Ideal for lovers of nature and photography.

União Trail

An exciting path that connects different areas of the park, allowing you to explore various facets of its natural beauty. Ideal for those looking for a more challenging and enriching hiking experience.

Running Water Pools

Dive into the park’s crystal-clear natural pools, cooling off and enjoying a well-deserved rest after exploring the trails. These pools are perfect for relaxing in the middle of exuberant nature.

Environmental Education Center

A space dedicated to raising awareness and learning about biodiversity and the importance of conservation. Here you can learn more about the park’s ecosystem and how we can protect it for future generations.

Meditation Island

An oasis of tranquility and connection with nature. This island is a perfect place to relax, meditate and enjoy the peace and harmony offered by the park’s natural environment.

Wildlife Contemplation

Brasília National Park is home to rich and diverse wildlife. Take the opportunity to observe birds, mammals and other species in their natural habitat. Prepare for exciting and memorable encounters with the park’s wildlife.

Facilities and services available

Visitor centers

Visitor centers offer useful information about the park, its trails, its flora and fauna, and the activities available. Here, visitors can obtain maps, purchase souvenirs, and get help from expert staff to plan their visit to the park in the best possible way.

Guides and tours

There are various guided tour options, from one-day hikes to multi-day expeditions. The guides are experts in the flora, fauna and geology of the park, providing an enriching and educational experience.

Food and accommodation

In the vicinity of the park, visitors will find a variety of accommodation and dining options. Here, you can experience Brazilian hospitality and taste delicious local cuisine, completing your experience.

Some locations near the Brasília National Park where it is possible to stay are:

  1. Brasília: the capital of Brazil, located about 10 km southwest of the park, is the closest city and the ideal starting point for visiting the park.
  2. Sobradinho: This town is located approximately 25 km northwest of the Brasília National Park and offers accommodation options and services for visitors.
  3. Planaltina: Located about 30 km north of the park, Planaltina is another option to stay and enjoy the local culture.
  4. Sobradinho II: about 20 km northwest of the park and also offers services and accommodation for visitors.
  5. Paranoá: about 25 km southeast of the Brasília National Park, near Lake Paranoá, and is known for its water activities and beaches.

Travel tips

Best time to visit

The best time to visit Brasília National Park is during the dry season, which runs from May to September. During these months, the weather is more pleasant, with mild temperatures and little rain, neither too cold nor too hot. The relative humidity of the air decreases, providing a more comfortable feeling during walks and outdoor activities with more sunny days to enjoy nature and panoramic views.

Avoiding the rainy season, which runs from October to April, is a good idea, as these months are warmer and more humid, which could be uncomfortable for visitors. The rainiest months, especially November, December and January, can feature heavy downpours that could affect the experience of trails and outdoor activities.

How to get

Brasília National Park is easily accessible from the city of Brasilia, with public and private transportation options. Bus routes and schedules vary depending on the season, so it is advisable to check them before your visit.

Park Rules and Regulations

As a visitor, it is important to respect the park’s rules and regulations to ensure the conservation of its flora and fauna and the safety of everyone. This includes staying on marked trails, not feeding animals, and taking all waste with you. Remember, the park is a heritage for everyone.

The Brasilia National Park in society and culture

Impact on the local community

Brasília National Park plays a crucial role in the local community, providing employment, promoting tourism and protecting natural resources that are vital to the region. The park is a source of pride for local residents and a symbol of Brazil’s dedication to conservation.

The park in arts and literature

The park has been a source of inspiration for many artists, writers and musicians over the years. Its beauty and biodiversity have been captured in paintings, poems, songs and films, contributing to Brazil’s rich cultural tapestry.

Challenges and the future of the Brasilia National Park

Climate change and other environmental challenges

The park faces several challenges, including habitat loss, climate change and pressure from human activities. However, a new wave of innovation and cooperation is emerging to confront these problems and guarantee their future.

Sustainable development and conservation strategies

The park is adopting innovative and sustainable approaches to the management of its resources, with the aim of preserving its rich biodiversity and offering an unforgettable experience for visitors.